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                     ISEBE LEMFUNDO LENTSHONA KOLONI

 
 
 
 
 
 

                              IMIGAQO ELAWULA INKQUBO 

                                       

                                

MATSHI 2003

Isandulela

 
 

Le migaqo elawula inkqubo ichaza imigaqo, imimiselo namanyathelo asesikweni acacisa gca umgaqo-nkqubo weSebe leMfundo leNtshona Koloni kunye nesicwangciso sokuyiphumeza ukuqinisekisa ukuba isayensi yenziwa ngokukhuselekile kwizikolo zalo nokuba iikhemikhali zisetyenziselwa kuphela ukwenza umsebenzi wamalinge okuvavanya okuthile omiselwe kwiisilabhasi ezahluka-hlukeneyo. Inika uluhlu lwezinto elizimisele ukuzenza iSebe leMfundo leNtshona Koloni kunye nemigqaliselo emayiqatshelwe zizikolo. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ISIQULATHO 

                                                                 Iphepha 

1. Intshayelelo         1

2. Umgaqo wezokhuseleko       2

3. Ukutyunjwa kwegosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi    2

4. Ukhuseleko kwiilabhoratri zesayisensi ezikolweni    3

5. Imisebenzi noxanduva lootishala abasebenzisa ilabhoratri

    neekhemikhali         4

6. Uxanduva Iwabafundi abasebenzisa ilabhoratri yesayensi  5 

7. Ukutyunjwa komhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle  5

8. Imisebenzi yomhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle   6

9. Iikhemikhali eziwiselwe imiqathango       6

10. Iziphumo zeekhemikhali eziwiselwe imiqathangoi  zakusetyenziswa  7

11. Ukugcinwa kweekhemikhali      7

12. Ukulahlwa komphutha weekhemikhali     8

13. Iinkqubo emazilandelwe ngexesha likaxakeka

14. Uqeqesho         10

15. Incwadana esisikhokelo yokhuseleko kwezesayensi yezikolo  10

16. Izinto ngokubanzi        10 
 

IZIHLOMELO

Isihlomelo A   Uluhlu lweekhemikhali ezisetyenziswa phantsi

Isihlomelo B   Iziphumo zeekhemikhali zakudityaniswa nezinye

Isihlomelo C   Iikhemikhali ezingahambelaniyo (Ngokubanzi) 15

Isihlomelo D   Ezingahambelaniyo (eziziintlobo ezithile)  16 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


 


 

1. INTSHAYELELO 

Ukhuseleko kwilabhoratri yesikolo alukhange lufumane ngqwalaselo iyiyo ngokuthe gqolo apha eMzantsi Afrika. Kutyeshelwe ngolona hlobo ukulahlwa komphutha weekhemikhali. 

ISebe leMfundo leNtshona Koloni linoxanduva lokuqinisekisa ukuba ukufundiswa nokufundwa kwesayensi ngendlela eyiyo kungenziwa ezikolweni lingayekelelanga nje ukuzimisela kwalo kucoceko lokusingqongileyo nakukhuseleko lwabafundi balo, ootitshala balo nezikolo zalo. Eli Sebe liyayiqonda into yokuba iilabhoratri zezikolo ziindawo ezingayingozi enkulu nokuba ukugcinwa nokusetyenziswa kweekhemikhali kufuneka kube phantsi kolawulo olungqongqo. Likwayiqonda into yokuba ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kweekhemikhali ezigcinwe kwizikolo zalo kungalubeka engozini ukhuseleko loluntu. 

Eli Sebe liyiqaphele inxaxheba oya kuthi uMthetho oYilwayo weziQhushumbisi omtsha (new Explosives Bill) ube nayo ekugcinweni nasekusetyenzisweni kweekhemikhali ezikolweni zalo kunye nokuhlolwa ngabantu bangaphandle esele kuthathelwe ingqalelo. 

Ngako oko ke eli Sebe linyanzelekile ukuba lithathe amanyathelo ayimfuneko ukuqinisekisa ngokhuseleko nokuthintela ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kweekhemikhali ezikolweni. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

  1. UMGAQO WEZOKHUSELEKO
 

Ukwenzela ukufikelela kwiinjongo zalo zokhuseleko kwizikolo zesayensi, eli Sebe: 

 
 
  1.      UKUTYUNJWA KWEGOSA LOKHUSELEKO LWEZESAYENSI
 

Inqununu yesikolo minyaka le iya kutyumba ngencwadi ebhaliweyo oyena titshala kwabo balapho njengegosa lezokhuseleko elinoxanduva lokujongana nezesayensi. Inqununu iya kubamba iintlanganiso eziliqela kunye nootitshala ize ibhungisane neengcali ukuba kuyimfuneko oko ukuqinisekisa ukuba kutyunjwa oyena mntu utshatsheleyo ngolwazi. 
 
 
 
 
 

  1.  UKHUSELEKO KWIILABHORATRI ZESAYENSI EZIKOLWENI
 
    1.  Imisebenzi yegosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi
 

Imisebenzi yegosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi esikolweni yile 

 
 
 
 
    1.      Imisebenzi noxanduva lootitshala abasebenzisa ilabhoratri neekhemikhali
 

Ukuze igosa lokhuseleko liphumelele ekwenzeni le misebenzi, ibalulekile intsebenziswano yootitshala abachaphazelekayo.  Ukuze kwenzeke oku, kukhankanywe apha ngasezantsi imisebenzi noxanduva lootitshala. Ootitshala abasebenzisa iilabhoratri neekhemikhali mabasebenzisane negosa lokhuseleko ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko. 

Kuya kufuneka ootitshala abalolu hlobo 

 
 
 

4.3 Uxanduva lwabafundi abasebenzisa ilabhoratri yesayensi  

Ukwenzela ukuba igosa lokhuseleko liwenze umsebenzi walo, ibalulekile intsebenziswano yabafundi.  Imisebenzi neemfanelo zabafundi abasebenzisa ilabhoratri yesayensi inikwe apha ngasezantsi. 

Kuya kufuneka abafundi  

 
  1.    UKUTYUNJWA KOMHLOLI WOKHUSELEKO LWEZESAYENSI

      WANGAPHANDLE 

Umlawuli we-EMDC minyaka le uya kutyumba ngencwadi ebhaliweyo oyena titshala onolwazi njengomhloli wezokhuseleko onoxanduva lokujongana nezesayensi. Umlawuli uya kubhungisana neengcali ukuba kuyimfuneko oko ukuqinisekisa ukuba kutyunjwa oyena mntu utshatsheleyo ngolwazi. Ukuba akukho mntu ufumanekayo ufanelekileyo, umcebisi ngezekharityhulam oyintloko okanye umcebisi ngezekharityhulam omkhulu okanye umcebisi ngezekharityhulam uya kubamba njengomhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle.  
 
 
 
 
 
 

  1.     IMISEBENZI YOMHLOLI WOKHUSELEKO LWEZESAYENSI  

      WANGAPHANDLE 

Umhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle uya

 
 

7.         IIKHEMIKHALI EZIWISELWE IMIQATHANGO 

Uluhlu lweekhemikhali eziyingozi olwanikwa izikolo zeSebe leMfundo leNtshona lushwankathelwe kwisihlomelo A. Ukusetyenziswa kwezi khemikhali kuphelele ekusetyenzisweni kwazo ngokwemimiselo yesilabhasi. Xa zisetyenziswa ezi khemikhali, makuthathwe amanye amanyathelo okulumkela ingozi ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko. Ngaphandle kokuba kucaciswe ngandlela yimbi kwisilabhasi, akuvumelekile ukuba abafundi ngokwabo baphathe ezi khemikhali yaye kuphela ngootitshala amabenze imiboniso kunye nezo zinto zizenzayo ezi khemikhali zakusetyenziswa. Ootitshala abafuna ukusebenzisa naziphi na ezezi khemikhali mabaxelele igosa lokhuseleko kwangethuba ukuze ibe lilo eliya kuzikhupha libanike. Le nkqubo kufuneka ibe yecwangciswe kakuhle ukuze ingaphazamisani nokufunda nokufundisa. 

Zonke iikhemikhali eziyingozi mazibe neelebhile ezibonakalayo nemiqondiso efanelekileyo elumkisayo.  

Ezi khemikhali mazingasetyenziswa kwizikolo zaseprayimari. 
 
 
 
 

  1.    IZIPHUMO ZEEKHEMIKHALI EZIWISELWE IMIQATHANGO

      ZAKUSETYENZISWA 

Uluhlu lweekhemikhali ezinikwa izikolo nezithi zikhuphe iziveliso eziyingozi zakutshiswa okanye zakudibana nezinye izinto, lushwankathelwe kwisihlomelo B. Ukuboniswa kwezinto ezenzekayo zakusetyenziswa ezi khemikhali kuphelele kwinto emiselwe kwisilabhasi. Xa kusenzeka ezi zinto zisisiphumo (reactions), makuthathwe amanye amanyathelo okulumkela ingozi ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko. Ngaphandle kokuba kucaciswe ngandlela yimbi kwisilabhasi, akuvumelekile ukuba abafundi ngokwabo basebenzise ezi khemikhali ukuze zivelise iziphumo ezibangelwa lusetyenziso lwazo yaye kuphela ngootitshala amabazibonise kubafundi. Ezi zinto zibangelwa lusetyenziso lwekhemikhali mazingaboniswa kubafundi baseprayimari.  
 

9.        UKUGCINWA KWEEKHEMIKHALI 
 

9.1  Iikhemikhali ezingafakwanga kuluhlu kwisilabhasi okanye ezinganikwanga

      izikolo liSebe leMfundo leNtshona Koloni  

Igosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi yesikolo liya kwenza uluhlu lwazo zonke iikhemikhali, nokuba ngaba zikho kwistokhwe okanye zisandula kuthengwa, nenjongo eziza kusetyenziselwa yona. Olu luhlu malungeniswe qho ngekota kumhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle.  Umhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle uya kuthintela ukugcinwa kunye/okanye ukusetyenziswa kwazo naziphi na iikhemikhali ezithathwa ngokuba azingqinelani noMgaqo-nkqubo noMgaqo woKhuseleko lwezeSayensi yeZikolo weSebe leMfundo leNtshona Koloni kunye nale Ncwadana yeMigaqo. 
 
 
 
 

9.2 IIKHEMIKHALI EZINGAHAMBELANIYO 

‘Iikhemikhali ezingahambelaniyo’ ziikhemikhali ezinokuthi xa zidibene nezinye zidale ingozi. Iikhemikhali mazigcinwe ngeendlela ezenza kube lula ukufumaneka nezenza  zingabinakwenza zingozi. Ngako oko ke, iikhemikhali ezingahambelaniyo akufuneki zigcinwe zimiswe nkqo okanye zilaliswe ngecala ezishelifini. Uluhlu lwezi khemikhali zingahambelaniyo lunikwe kwiZihlomelo C no-D. 
 
 
 
 

Iikhemikhali mazigcinwe kwigumbi elahlukileyo ingabililo elo linezixhobo zeFiziksi. Izikhongozeli ezikhulu ezineekhemikhali kufuneka zigcinwe zibekwe phezu komgangatho. Makungabikho mphunga uyingozi kwigumbi elisisitora leFiziksi okanye leKhemistri.    

  1.     UKULAHLWA KOMPHUTHA WEEKHEMIKHALI
 

Umgaqo-nkqubo wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wesikolo kufuneka wenze amalungiselelo amanyathelo amakalandelwe malunga nokulahlwa komphutha weekhemikhali. Lo mgaqo-nkqubo kufuneka wenze amalungiselelo okulahlwa komphutha weekhemikhali kuphela kwiindawo ezivunywe ngumasipala. Xa zifuna ukulahla umphutha weekhemikhali, izikolo maziqhagamshelane necandelo loLawulo lweNkunkuma likamasipala.  Nazi iinkcukacha zoqhangamshelwano nabo:  
 

  1.      IINKUBO EMAZILANDELWE NGEXESHA LIKAXAKEKA
 
    1. Ubusela
 

Zonke iziganeko zobusela mazixelwe kwigosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi lesikolo ngoko nangoko, eliya kuthi lona lixelele inqununu ne-EMDC echaphazelekayo oko likwenza ngomhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle. Igosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi lesikolo liya kubhala ingxelo ngesiganeko sobusela eso lize linike iikopi zayo inqununu yesikolo nomhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle. Inqununu yesikolo iya kusisa emapoliseni akufutshane eso siganeko, ize ivule ityala yaye iqalise ngophando. Ukuba kuyimfuneko, umhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi wangaphandle uya kuhlola okwenzekileyo apho kwiziko lemfundo elo aze anike ingxelo yolu hlolo kumcebisi wezekharityhulam oyintloko. Kuzo zonke izenzo zobusela, isikolo kunye ne-EMDC echaphazelekayo kufuneka zifayilishe iingxelo zize zixelele iSebe leMfundo ukuze lihlale likwazi okuqhubekayo.

11.2    Ukwenzakala neengozi ezenzeka elabhoratri
 
 

Iziganeko zokwenzakala mazixelwe ngoko nangoko kwinqununu oku kwenziwe ligosa lokhuseleko lwezeSayensi yeSikolo. Wakuba waziwe unobangela wokwenzakala, utitshala osemsebenzini makenze uncedo lokuqala elandela imigaqo ekwiNcwadana esiSikhokelo seZokhuseleko lwezeSayensi yeSikolo malunga naloo ngozi. Kwiingozi ezimasikizi, umntu (abantu) owenzakeleyo makabalekiselwe esibhedlele.  

Kwimeko yeengozi ezimasikizi, ezinjengomlilo ongalawulekiyo makuphunywe elabhoratri kuze kwaziswe umasipala okufutshane ukwenzela ukuyifaka phantsi kolawulo loo meko.  Igosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi yesikolo malingenise ingxelo ebhaliweyo ngesiganeko eso kumhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi yesikolo wangaphandle. Isikolo kunye ne-EMDC echaphazelekayo mazibe neekopi zale ngxelo ziyigcine efayilini. 

Ilabhoratri nganye mayixhotyiswe ngezixhobo zoncedo lokuqala, isicima-mlilo, ingubo, umhlakulo ne-emere ngokungqinelana nemimiselo yeNcwadana esiSikhokelo yoKhuseleko lwezeSayensi yeSikolo. 

  1.    UQEQESHO
 

Igosa lokhuseleko lwezesayensi lesikolo liya kukhawuleza liqalise ngokuqeqesha ootitshala besayensi ngokhuseleko lwezesayensi yesikolo xa oku kuyimfuneko. Umhloli wokhuseleko lwezesayensi yesikolo wangaphandle we-EMDC uya kuqeqesha amagosa okhuseleko lwezesayensi amatsha xa kuye kwakho isicelo soko. Eli gosa liya kuqeqesha kwakhona amagosa amatsha okhuseleko lwezesayensi ezikolweni apho isayensi isandula ukuqaliswa kwikharityhulam. 

  1.     INCWADANA ESISIKHOKELO YOKHUSELEKO KWEZESAYENSI YESIKOLO
 

ISebe leMfundo liya kuqulunqa esi sikhokelo lize linike isikolo ngasinye ikopi yaso. 

  1.    IZINTO NGOKUBANZI
 
 

Lo gama iSebe leMfundo livelana nezikolo ezinozenzele bezixhobo zesayensi, kumelwe kugxininisiswe ukuba ukwenziwa nokusetyenziswa kwezixhobo ezilolo hlobo luxanduva izikolo ezo eziya kuluthwala ngokwazo. Ukuba kukho izikolo ezigcina iikhemikhali ngemilinganiselo engeyiyo leyo imiselweyo ukuba isetyenziswe ifunekayo ekuhlohlweni kwesilabhasi, luxanduva olo eziya kuluthwala ngokwazo, yaye ziyakhunjuzwa ukuba ukugcinwa nokusetyenziswa kwezi khemikhali akukhuselwanga ngulo mgaqo–nkqubo.

ISIHLOMELO A: ULUHLU LWEEKHEMIKHALI EZISETYENZISWA PHANTSI KWEMIQATHANGO ETHILE

 

IKHEMIKHALI 
 
 
 
 

I

s

i

d

u

b

u

l

i 
 

I

o

k

s

i

d

e

n

t

i

E

k

u

l

a 

u

k

u

v

u

t

h

a

E

y

u

c

u

a

y

o

E

z

i

n

e

t

y

h

e

f

u

I

s

i

r

h

a

w

u

z

e

l

i

i

M

y

u

t

h

a

j

i

n

i

i

K

h

a

s

i

n

o

j

i

n

i

Iasethikhi asidi (Acetic acid)

     

   C

       

Ialuminiyam khlorayidi (Aluminium chloride)

     

   C

       

Umgubo wealuminiyam (Aluminium powder)

  E

             

Iamoniya (Ammonia)

       

  T

  I

   

Iamoniyam dayikhromeyithi (Ammonium dichromate)

  E

   

    C 

  T

  I

M

 

Iamoniyam nayitreyithi (Ammonium nitrate)

  E

             

Iamoniyam thayokhyaneyithi (Ammonium thiocyanate)

       

  T

     

Ibheriyam khlorayidi (Barium chloride)

       

  T

     

Ibheriyam hayidroksayidi (Barium hydroxide)

       

  T

     

Ibhenzini (Benzene)

   

   F

 

  T

   

HC

Ibromayini (Bromine)

     

   C

 

   I

   

Ibyuthanoli (Butanol)

   

   F

 

   T

     

Ikhabhoni (grafayithi) (Carbon (graphite))

         

   I

   

Ikhabhoni dayisalfayidi (Carbon disulfide)

  E

 

   F

         

Ikhabhoni thetrakhlorayidi (Carbon tetrachloride)

       

   T

   I

 

PHC

Itshakhowuli (Charcoal)

   

   F

         

Ikhlorayini (Chlorine)

     

   C

   T

   I

   

Ikhlorofom (Chloroform)

       

   T

   

PHC

 

Ikopolo yekhabhoneyithi (Copper carbonate)

         

   I

   

Ikopolo yekhabhoneyithi (Copper carbonate)

         

   I

   

Ikopolo yekhlorayidi (Copper chloride)

         

   I

   

Ikopolo yenayitreyithi (Copper nitrate)

E

       

I

   

Ikopolo yeoksidayidi (Copper oxide)

         

I

   

Ikopolo yesalfeyithi (Copper sulphate)

         

I

   

Isayiklohekzeyini (Cyclohexane)

   

F

   

I

   

Isayiklohekzeyini (Cyclohexane)

   

F

         

Idikheyinidayioyili dayikhlorayidi (Decanedioyl dichloride)

       

T

     

Iethanowikhi asidi (Ethanoic acid)

   

F

   

I

   

Iethanoli (Ethanol)

               

Ietha (Ether)

 

E

F

         

Ietha (dayethili etha) (Ether (diethyl ether))

   

F

         

Ihayidrokhlorikhi asidi (Hydrochloric acid)

     

C

T

I

   

Igesi yehayidrojini (Hydrogen gas)

 

E

F

C

       

Ihayidrojini pheroksayidi (Hydrogen peroxide) (30%))

   

F

 

T

I

   

Ihayidrojini salfayidi (Hydrogen sulphide)

         

I

   

I-indigo khamayini (Indigo carmine)

           

M

 

Umphunga we-ayodini (Iodine vapour)

     

C

 

I

   

Iayodini ezingqakumbana ezimenyezelayo (Iodine crystals)

     

C

 

I

   

Iayoni khlorayidi (III) (Iron (III) chloride))

         

I

   

Ilothe yeoksayidi (II) (Lead (II) oxide))

       

T

     

Ilothe yeaksitheyithi (Lead acetate)

       

T

     

Ilothe yebromayidi (Lead bromide)

       

T

     

Ilothe yekhabhoneyithi (Lead carbonate)

       

T

I

   

Ilothe yenayitreyithi (Lead nitrate)

       

T

     

Ilothe yesalfayidi (Lead sulphide)

       

T

     

Ulwelo lwegesi yepetroliyam (Liquid petroleum gas)

 

E

F

         

Ilithiyam (Lithium)

 

E

 

C

       

Ikhlorayidi yelithiyam (Lithium chloride)

     

C

       

Ihayidroksayidi yelithiyam (Lithium hydroxide)

     

C

       

Imagneziyam (Magnesium)

   

F

         

Ioksayidi yemetyhuri (Mercuric oxide)

       

T

     

Imetyhuri (Mercury)

       

T

     
 

Inayitreyithi yemetyhuri (Mercury nitrate)

       

T

     

Imithanoli (Methanol)

   

F

 

T

     

Iimethileyithedi spirithi (Methylated spirits)

   

F

         

Imethanowikhi asidi (ifomikhi asidi) (Methanoic acid (formic acid))

   

F

   

I

   

Imithanali (ifomalini) Methanal (formalin))

   

F

   

I

   

Inafthalini (Naphthalene)

   

F

   

I

   

Inikheli (Nickel)

               

Inayitrikhi asidi (Nitric acid)

 

O

     

I

   

Ioksalikhi asidi (Oxalic acid)

     

C

       

Igesi yeoksijini (Oxygen gas)

 

O

           

Ifenolfuthalini (Phenolphthalein)

         

I

   

Ifosiforasi (emhlophe) (Phosphorous (white))

     

C

T

     

Ifosiforasi phentoksayidi (Phosphorous pentoxide)

     

C

T

     

Ifosiforasi ebomvu (Phosphorous red)

   

F

         

Ifosiforasi emthubi (Phosphorous yellow)

   

F

         

Ipotaziyam (Potassium)

E

   

C

       

Ipotaziyam khabhoneyithi (Potassium carbonate)

               

Ipotaziyam khloreyithi (Potassium chlorate)

 

O

   

T

I

   

Ipotaziyam dayikhromeyithi (Potassium dichromate)

     

C

     

HC

Ipotaziyam hayidroksayidi (Potassium hydroxide)

     

C

 

I

   

Ipotaziyam phemanganeyithi (Potassium permanganate)

E

       

I

M

 

Ipropanoni (asethoni) (Propanone (acetone))

   

F

 

T

I

   

Inayitreyithi esilivere (Silver nitrate)

     

C

   

M

 

Ilayim yesoda (Soda lime)

     

C

       

Isodiyam (Sodium)

     

C

       

Isodiyam hayidroksayithi (Sodium hydroxide)

     

C

 

I

   

Isodiyam hypokhlorayithi (Sodium hypochlorite)

     

C

 

I

   

Isodiyam yenayitreyithi (Sodium nitrate)

           

M

 

Inayitrayithi yesodiyam (Sodium nitrite)

E

O

       

M

 

Isodiyam pheroksayidi (Sodium peroxide)

               

Isalfari (Sulphur)

   

F

         

Isalfarikhi asidi (Sulphuric acid)

     

C

       

Ithapenthayini (Turpentine)

   

F

   

I

   

ISIHLOMELO B: IZIPHUMO ZEEKHEMIKHALI ZAKUDITYANISWA NEZINYE EZITHILE

 

IKHEMIKHALI

INKCAZO YOKWENZEKAYO KUNYE NENGOZI ENGEHLA

Iiasidi 

Zivelisa ubushushu negesi yehayidrojini enokudubula idibene nesinyithi. Zivelisa ubushushu xa zigalelwe amanzi.  Ziba neziphumo eziyingozi xa iasidi igalelwe amanzi kwaye zikhupha iasidi eshushu.

Iimethali zealkali (Iqela I) neemethali zomhlaba zealkalini (Iqela II.)

Ziba neziphumo ngamandla zakudityaniswa namanzi zikhuphe ubushushu obuninzi negesi yehayidrojini enokudubula.  uninzi lwezi methali luyatsha lwakudibana ne-oksijini okanye nomoya.

Iamoniyam nayitreyithi

Yenza umxube oyingozi isakudityaniswa nee-asidi, neekhloreyithi, nolwelo olukhawuleza luvuthe nezinto ezicukucezwe zancinane.

Iamoniyam thiyosayinethi

Xa itshiswe ngeqondo elingaphezu kuka- 170 ºC ingakhupha umphunga onee- siyanadzi.

Umgubo okhuculayo

Ukhupha igesi yeKhlorini enetyhefu xa unyityilikiswa emanzini.  Uyadubula xa utshiwe ngaphezu kwe-100 ºC.  Ukhupha umphunga oyityhefu xa kufakwe iasidi kuwo.

Imethali yekhalsiyam

Umphunga ophuma kwikhalsiyam evuthayo yikhalsiyam oksayidi

Ikhalsiyam khabhayithi

Yenza iethim xa idityaniswe namanzi.

Ikhalsiyam oksayidi

Ikhupha ubushushu kakhulu xa idityaniswe namanzi, umphunga, ii-asidi okanye umphunga we-asidi.

Ikhabhoni (grafayithi)

Xa itshiswa ingadubula.

Ikhabhoni dayisalfayidi

Njengoninzi lweegesi ezikhawuleza zivuthe, yenza umxube onokudubula xa udibene nomoya.

I-ethini (iasithilini)                                 

Iyadubula xa ilunyekwa kukho ioksijini ize ikhuphe ubushushu obuninzi

Ipotaziyam khloreyithi

Ingadubula yenze ingozi enkulu ukuba idityaniswe nekhabhoni nee-oganikhi khompawundi okanye xa kukho ubumdaka obufana nothuli xa itshiswa.

Ipotaziyam hayidroksayidi

Ikhupha ubushushu xa idityaniswa namanzi.

Isilva nayitreyithi

Yenza umxube onokudubula xa idibene nomgubo wemagniziyam

Isodiyam hayiphoklorayithi

Iba neziphumo yakudibana nee-asidi yenze igesi eyityhefu yekhlorin.  Kwakhona ikhupha igesi yekhlorini xa itshiswa.

Isodiyam hayidroksayidi

Ikhupha ubushushu xa idityaniswe namanzi.

Isodiyam nayitrayithi

Iyadubula xa itshiswe ngokusondele kwi-5000C.  Ingenza imixube enokuqhushumba xa idibene neetyuwa ze-amoniyamu neethiyosalfeyithi

Isodiyam pheroksayidi

Iba neziphumo eziyingozi xa idibene namanzi

Isalfure

Ikhupha ityhefu eyisalfa dayoksayidi xa itshiswe kwioksijini. Yenza imixube edubulayo xa idibene nezinki nomgubo wemagneziyam nekhloreyiti kunye nezinye iioksidenti

Umgubo wezinki

Uyadubula. Wenza imixube edubulayo xa idityaniswe nesalfure.

ISIHLOMELO C: IIKHEMIKHALI EZINGAHAMBELANIYO

[Ngokubanzi]

 

Ezi zibini zilapha ngasezantsi yimizekelo yezinto ezingahambelaniyo 

Isenzi-mhlwa   kunye    nezidala idangatye

Isenzi-mhlwa   kunye    nesinciphisi

       Iasidi   kunye    neziseko

       Iasidi   kunye    neesalfayidzi  

       Iasidi   kunye    nezivutha ngokulula

       Iasidi   kunye    neekhompawundi zekhlorini

       Iasidi   kunye    nezine-alkhoholi

       Iasidi   kunye    neemethali zee-elementi

       Amanzi   kunye    nee-elementi zamaqela I no-II

Amanzi okanye ezo zidala

umoya kwakhona  kunye    nantoni na

Ii-oganikhi pheroksayidi  kunye    nantoni na

ISIHLOMELO D: EZINGAHAMBELANIYO

[Eziziintlobo ezithile]

 

Imizekelo ethile yeekhemikhali ezingahambelaniyo ikwesi sicwangciso silapha ngasezantsi 

(Ithathwe kwiSafety in Academic Chemistry Laboratories: Kwi-American Chemical Society) 

IKHEMIKHALI

AZIHAMBELANI

Iasithikhi asidi (Acetic acid)

Nenayitrikhi asidi, ihayidroksili khompawundi, iipheroksayidi, iiphemanganeyithi (Nitric acid, hydroxyl compounds, peroxides, permanganates)

Iasithilini (Acetylene)

Ikhlorini, ibromayini, ikopolo, iflorini, isilivere, imetyhuri (Chlorine, bromine, copper, fluorine, silver, mercury)

Iasithoni (Acetone)

Nemixube yeenayitrikhi asidi (Concentrated nitric acid kunye nesalfurikhi asidi (sulphuric acid)

Ialkhali neemethali zomhlaba zealkhalini (Amaqela I no-II eziseko) umz. Ipotaziyam, ilithiyam, isodiyam, ikhalsiyam, imagniziyam nomgubo wealuminiyam (Alkhali and alkaline earth metals (Groups I and II elements] e.g. potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium and aluminium powder)

Amanzi, ikhabhoni thetrakhlorayidi okanye ezinye iihayidrokhabhoni ezinekhlorini, ikhabhoni dayoksayidi, iihalojini (Water, carbon tetrachloride or other chlorinated hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, halogens)

Iamoniya (enihayidrasi) (Ammonia (anhydrous)

Imetyhuri, ikhlorini, ikhalsiyam hayiphokhlorayithi, iayodini, ibromayini, ienihayidrasi, ihayidroflorikhi asidi (Mercury, chlorine, calcium hypochlorite, iodine, bromine, anhydrous hydrofluoric acid)

Iamoniyam nayitreyithi (Ammonium nitrate)

Iiasidi, izinyithi ezingumgubo, ulwelo olutshisayo, ikhloreyithi, inayitrayithi, isalfure, izinto ezicukucweze  zancinane ezenziwe ngezinto ezinokuvutha, (Acids, powdered metals, flammable liquids, chlorates, nitrites, sulphur, finely divided organic combustible materials)

Ibromayini (Bromine)

Iamoniya, iasithilini, ibyuthadini, ibyutheyini, imitheyini, ipropheyini, (okanye ezinye iigesi zepetroliyam), ihayidrojini, isodiyam khabhayidi, ibhenzini, iimethali, ithapenthayini (Ammonia, acetylene, butadiene, butane, methane, propane (or other petroleum gases), hydrogen, sodium carbide, benzene, metals, turpentine)

Ikhalsiyam oksayidi (Calcium oxide)

Amanzi (Water)

Ikhabhoni ezanya-zanyisiweyo (Carbon (activated)

Ikhalsiyam hayiphokhlorayithi, nazo zonke izinto ezibangela umhlwa (Calcium hypochlorite, all oxidising agents)

Ikhabhoni thetrakhlorayidi (Carbon tetrachloride)

Isodiyam (Sodium)

Iikhloreyithi (Chlorates) 

Iityuwa ze-amoniya, iiasidi, iimethali ezingumgubo, isalfure, izinto ezicukucweze  zancinane ezenziwe ngezinto ezinokuvutha (Ammonium salts, acids, powdered metals, sulphur, finely divided organic or combustible metals

Ikhlorini (Chlorine) 

Iamoniya, iasithilini, ibyutheyini, imitheyini, ipropheyini, (okanye ezinye iigesi zepetroliyam), ihayidrojini, isodiyam khabhayidi, ibhenzini, izinto ezicukucweze zancinane ithapenthayini (Ammonia, acetylene, butadiene, butane, methane, propane (or other petroleum gases), hydrogen, sodium carbide, benzene, finely divided metals, turpentine)

 

Ikopolo (Copper)

Iasithilini, ihayidrojini pheroksayidi (Acetylene, hydrogen peroxide)

Ulwelo oluvutha ngokulula (Flammable liquids)

Iamoniyam nayitreyithi, ihayidrojini pheroksayidi, inayitrikhi asidi, isodiyam pheroksayidi, iihalojini

(Ammonium nitrate, hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, sodium peroxide, halogens)

Iflorini (Fluorine)

Nazo zonke ezinye iikhemikhali (All other chemicals)

Iihayidrokhabhoni, umz. Ibyutheyini, ipropheyini, ibhenzini (Hydrocarbons, e.g. butane, propane, benzene)

Iflorini, ikhlorini, ibromayini, isodiyam pheroksayidi (Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sodium peroxide)

Ihayidroflorikhi asidi (enihayidrasi) (Hydrofluoric acid) (anhydrous))

I-amoniya (aqueous or anhydrous)

Ihayidrojini pheroksayidi (Hydrogen peroxide)

Ikopolo, intsimbi, uninzi lweemethali okanye iityuwa zazo, ii-akhoholi, iasethoni, izinto ezibolayo (Copper,  iron, metals or their salts, alchohols, acetone, organic metarials)

Ihayidrojini salfayidi (Hydrogen sulphide)

Inayitrikhi asidi eqhumayo, iigesi ezibangela umhlwa (Fuming nitric acid, oxidising gases)

Iihayiphokhlorayithi (Hypochlorites)

Iiasidi, ikhabhoni ezanya-zanyisiweyo (Acids, activated carbon)

I-ayodini (Iodine)

Iasithilini, iamoniya (iakhwasi ienihayidrasi), ihayidrojjini (Acetylene, ammonia (aqueous okanye ii-anhydrous), hydrogen)

Imetyhuri (Mercury)

Iasethilini, iamoniya (Acetylene, ammonia)

Iinayitreyithi (Nitrates)

Isalfurikhi asidi (Sulphuric acid)

Inayitrikhi asidi (ejiye kakhulu) Nitric acid (concentrated)

I-asethiki asidi, ihayidrojeni salfayidi, ulwelo oluvutha ngokulula kunye neegesi, ikopolo, ibrasi, naziphi na iimethali ezisindayo (Acetic acid, hydrogen sulphide, flammable liquids and gases, copper, brass and any metals)

I-inayitrayithi (Nitrites)

Ii-asidi (Acids)

I-oksalikhi asidi (Oxalic acid)

Isilivere, imetyhuri (Silver, mercury)

I-oksijini (Oxygen)

Ii-oyili, igrisi, ihayidrojini, ulwelo oluvutha ngokulula, iziqina, okanye iigesi (Oils, grease, hydrogen, flammable liquids, solids or gases)

Ifosiforasi (emhlophe) Phosphorous (white))

Umoya, ioksijini, ii-alkhali, izinto ezinciphisa izinto zibe ncinane (Air, oxygen, alkalis, reducing agents)

Ipothaziyam (Potassium)

Ikhabhoni thetrakhlorayidi, ikhabhoni dayoksayidi, amanzi (Carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water)

Ipothaziyam khloreyithi (Potassium chlorate)

I-asidi yesalfure nezinye iiasidi (Sulphuric and other acids)

Isilivere (Silver)

I-asithilini, i-oksalikhi asidi, ithatharikhi asidi, iikhompawundi zeamoniyam (Acetylene, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, ammonium compounds)

Isodiyam (Sodium)

Ikhabhoni thetrakhlorayidi, ikhabhoni dayoksayidi, amanzi (Carbon tetrachloride, carbon dioxide, water)

Isodiyam nayitrayithi (Sodium nitrite)

I-amoniyam nayitreyithi nezinye iityuwa ze-amoniya

(Ammonium nitrate and other ammonium salts)

Isodiyam pheroksayidi (Sodium peroxide)

I-ithanoli okanye imithanoli, iasethikhi asidi ebumkhenkce, ikhabhoni dayisalfayidi, igliserini, imethili okanye iethili asiteyithi (Ethanol methanol, glacial acetic acid, carbon disulphide, glycerine, methyl or ethyl acetate)

Iisalfayidi (Sulphides)

Ii-asidi (Acids)

I-asidi yesalfure (Sulphuric acid)

Ipotaziyam khloreyithi, uzifo-zonke,  (iikhompawundi ezifana nezeekhompawundi zeemethali ezilula (Potassium chlorate, potassium permanganate (similar compounds of light metals, such as sodium lithium)