Houben-Hoesch Reaction

K. Hoesch, Ber. 48, 1122 (1915); J. Houben, ibid. 59, 2878 (1926).

Synthesis of acylphenols from phenols or phenolic ethers by the action of organic nitriles in the presence of hydrochloric acid and aluminum chloride as catalyst:

Reviews: P. E. Spoerri, A. S. DuBois, Org. React. 5, 387 (1949); Thomas, Anhydrous Aluminum Chloride in Organic Chemistry (New York, 1941) p 504; W. Ruske in Friedel-Crafts and Related Reactions vol. III, Part 1, G. A. Olah, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1964) p 383; M. I. Amer et al., J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I 1983, 1075; V. V. Arkhipov et al., Chem. Heterocycl. Compd. 33, 515 (1997); R. Kawecki et al., Synthesis 1999, 751. Cf. Gatterman Aldehyde Synthesis; Houben-Fischer Synthesis.

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